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and at last the treaty was signed. The royal consent was
given only just in time, for Paskievich was preparing to
march, on Teheran and had been promised by the disloyal
chiefs of Azerbaijan the support of fifteen thousand
The Modification of the Definitive Treaty with Gnat
Britain.—The Persian Government held that the occupa-
tion of the district of Gokcha by Russia was the cause of
the war and that Great Britain was consequently bound by
the Definitive Treaty of 1814 to come to her aid. The British
view, and the just view, was that Persia had waged an
aggressive war. It was, however, realized that, had Russia
been the aggressor and had her troops invaded Persian
territory, Great Britain would have been placed in the
awkward position of supporting the Shah in a war waged
against a power with which she herself was on friendly
terms. Sir John Macdonald, who had come to the rescue
of Abbas Mirza by advancing him money in his dire need,
succeeded in negotiating an agreement by which, in return
for a payment of 200,000 tomans, Articles 3 and 4
of the treaty were cancelled.1 This sum of money was
urgently needed by Abbas Mirza, and upon its receipt
General Paskievich evacuated Tabriz. The cancelling of
the two articles by Sir John Macdonald proves that that
able diplomatist had realized the change in the position of
Persia referred to above ; a change which had already been
indicated by the transfer of the direction of affairs at
Teheran from London to Calcutta. By this deletion of
treaty provisions that would have been inapplicable to the
new situation he rendered a signal service to Great Britain,
while the cash payment was invaluable to her stricken
The Murder of Grebalodov^ 1828.—The year in which
the treaty of Turkomanchai was signed was singularly un-
1 Aitchhorfs Treaties, p. 57. Article 3 of the Definitive Treaty, after declaring its pur-
pose to be "strictly defensive'* and its object that of "repelling the aggression of
enemies," went on to state that "the limits of the territories of the two States of
Russia and Persia shall be determined according to the admission of Great Britain,
Persia and Russia/* Article 4 provided that, in case any European nation invaded
Persia, Great Britain should, if the Persian Government required assistance, send from
India " the force required," or, in lieu thereof, should pay an annual subsidy of two hundred
thousand tomans towards the cost of a Persian army. But this subsidy was not to be
paid if the war was " produced by an aggression on the part of Persia."